Structure of Atom



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Contents

Electron Discovery


Description: Subatomic particles are constituents of atoms, including electrons, protons, and neutrons. The electron's discovery by J.J. Thomson revolutionized understanding of atomic structure.


Atomic Theory


Description: Discovery of proton (Rutherford) and neutron (Chadwick) revealed atomic structure. Thomson's model lacked nucleus; Rutherford's lacked electron arrangement. Bohr incorporated quantized electron orbits. Atomic number and mass define isotopes.


Isotopic Radiation


Description: Isotopes have same atomic number, different mass. Isobars have same mass number, different atomic number. Isotones have same neutron number. Electromagnetic radiation exhibits wave-like behavior.


Quantum Model


Description: Max Planck proposed light as particles (photons). Bohr's model quantized electron orbits, explaining hydrogen spectrum. Its merit: accurately predicting atomic emission spectra.


Demerits & Spectrum


Description: Bohr's model couldn't explain multi-electron atoms, spectral line intensities, or fine structure. Hydrogen spectrum lacked details beyond Balmer series.


Quantum Concepts


Description: These concepts encompass the structure and behavior of electrons in atoms, including their orbit size, velocity, wave-particle duality, described by De Broglie's equation, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and Schrödinger's wave equation, along with qua


Quantum Properties


Description: These concepts relate to electron properties within atoms: Magnetic Quantum Number specifies orbital orientation, Spin Quantum Number indicates electron spin, Energies of Orbitals denote electron energy levels, and Hund’s Rule guides electron arrangement.


Quantum Principles


Description: Exchange energy influences electron arrangements, Pauli’s Exclusion Principle limits electrons per orbital, while Quantum Numbers define electron states within atoms.


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