Electromagnetic Waves and Communication System



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Contents

Electromagnetic wave


Description: An electromagnetic wave is a wave composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation.


Formulae of EM waves


Description: Electromagnetic waves: transverse, oscillating electric and magnetic fields, travel at speed of light, described by Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic spectrum.


Electromagnetic Spectrum


Description: Electromagnetic spectrum: range of all electromagnetic waves, from radio waves to gamma rays, differing in frequency, wavelength, and energy.


Concept of Radio Wave


Description: Radio waves: low-frequency, long-wavelength electromagnetic radiation used in telecommunications, broadcasting, and radar, with wavelengths ranging from meters to kilometers.


Micro waves & Infra red


Description: Microwaves: higher frequency, shorter wavelength electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from centimeters to millimeters. While Infrared: electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than visible light, sensed as heat,


UV & X-rays


Description: UV (Ultraviolet): electromagnetic radiation with shorter wavelengths than visible light. X-rays: high-energy electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths shorter than UV.


Gamma wave and Sky Wave


Description: Gamma rays: high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted by radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, and cosmic sources. Sky waves: radio waves reflected by ionosphere.


Propagation system


Description: Propagation of waves involves the transfer of energy through a medium or vacuum, characterized by oscillations and varying wavelengths.


Types & Need of Modulation


Description: Modulation alters a carrier wave's properties to encode information for transmission. Types include amplitude, frequency, and phase modulation techniques.


Modulated Signal


Description: modulated signal combines a carrier wave with a varying signal to convey information, crucial in telecommunications for efficient transmission.


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