Biology Volume-6(Zoology-II)



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Contents

Darwins Theory of Evolution


Description: Darwin's theory of evolution proposes natural selection as the mechanism driving the gradual change and adaptation of species over time


Industrial Melanism


Description: Industrial melanism is the adaptation of organisms to dark coloration in polluted environments, driven by natural selection for camouflage


Convergent Evolution & Adaptive Radiation


Description: Convergent evolution: unrelated species evolve similar traits due to similar environmental pressures. Adaptive radiation: rapid diversification of species into different ecological niches.


Common Diseases in Humans


Description: Common human diseases include cardiovascular diseases, respiratory infections, cancer, diabetes, and mental health disorders, impacting individuals worldwide across ages.


Immunity


Description: Immunity is the body's defense system against pathogens, involving white blood cells, antibodies, and memory cells for long-term protection.


Founders Effect


Description: Founder effect: genetic drift in small population founding a new colony, leading to reduced genetic diversity. Bottleneck effect: population drastically reduced.


Grafting of Organs


Description: Organ grafting involves transplanting organs from a donor to a recipient to replace damaged or failing organs, often saving lives.


Principles of Biotechnology


Description: Biotechnology uses biological systems, organisms, or their derivatives to develop products and technologies for various fields, including medicine and agriculture.


Agricultural Biotechnology


Description: Agricultural biotechnology applies genetic engineering and molecular biology to improve crop yield, resistance to pests, and nutritional content for agriculture.


Biotechnology In medicinal Field


Description: Biotechnology in medicine uses genetic engineering and bioprocessing to develop drugs, vaccines, and therapies for treating diseases and improving healthcare.


PCR & Genetic Engineering


Description: PCR amplifies DNA segments in vitro. Genetic engineering manipulates DNA to create organisms with desired traits for various applications.


Electrophoresis & Cloning Vectors


Description: Electrophoresis separates DNA fragments by size. Cloning vectors are DNA molecules used to carry foreign DNA into host cells for replication.


Origin of Life & Theories of Evolution


Description: The origin of life involves abiogenesis, where life arises from non-living matter, possibly through chemical evolution in primordial environments.


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